The nutritional and cardiovascular health benefits of rapeseed oil‑fed farmed salmon in humans are not decreased compared with those of traditionally farmed salmon: a randomized controlled trial

Background: Farmed fish are increasingly raised on feeds containing vegetable oils, which may reduce its long chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) and vitamin D content and affect their health properties. Aim: We investigated the effects of consuming farmed salmon raised on different feeding regimes on the omega-3 index (O3I), cardiovascular health outcomes, vitamin D and micronutrient in healthy participants. Design: Salmon were grown on fish oil-based feeds containing high (HPUFA), or rapeseed oil-based feeds containing more sustainable (SPUFA) levels of LC n-3 PUFA, resulting in an EPA+DHA content in salmon fillets of 2.1 or 0.9 g/100g, respectively. In a randomized parallel controlled trial, 51 participants were randomly allocated to consume 2 portions/wk of HPUFA salmon (n=17), SPUFA salmon (n=17) or no salmon (control, n=17) as part of their habitual diet, for 18 wk. Blood was collected at 0, 9 and 18 wk to measure the O3I in red blood cells (RBC), markers of cardiovascular risk, serum 25(OH)-vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and plasma micronutrient concentrations. Results: After 18 wk, the O3I was significantly higher (¡Ý2%) in participants consuming 2 portions/wk of HPUFA or SPUFA salmon, and serum 25(OH)D3 was significantly higher in participants consuming salmon or SPUFA salmon, compared with those consuming no salmon, after 18 wk (all p<0.05). Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were significantly lower in participants consuming SPUFA salmon after 18 wk (p<0.05), whereas heart rate was significantly lower in participants consuming HPUFA salmon after 9 wk (p<0.01), compared with no salmon. Salmon consumption did not affect glucose or inflammation markers. Conclusion: Two portions/wk of salmon raised on feeds containing a combination of marine and terrestrial oils similarly increase the O3I and vitamin D status, and decrease plasma triacylglycerols concentrations, than salmon raised on fish oil-based feeds. These outcomes endorse opportunities for developing more sustainable aquaculture food systems.
Refereed journal
Output Tags
WP 3.2 Healthy diets and dietary choice (RESAS 2016-21)